Date of Award

Fall 9-15-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

PHD - Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Dalia Llera

Second Advisor

Dr. William Stokes

Third Advisor

Dr. Stacey N. Doan


The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between parental emotion socialization and children’s expressive flexibility (EF) during middle childhood in a cross-cultural context. American (N = 69) and South Korean children (N = 77) participated with their fathers and mothers. Children’s EF ability was assessed using a quantitative lab-based observational measure. Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires ascertaining several emotion socialization factors, including beliefs about children’s emotions, emotion control values, and their own emotion regulation strategies. Results showed that the relation between parental socialization factors and children’s EF was moderated by culture. Parental beliefs about danger of emotions and emotion control values were associated with decreased EF ability for American children, whereas they were not significantly associated with EF ability for Korean children. Regardless of cultural background, fathers’ emotion-related beliefs (e.g., emotions are dangerous) and mothers’ use of emotional suppression as regulation strategies predicted children’s EF. The findings suggest that mothers’ and fathers’ socialization practices may uniquely contribute to emotional outcomes in children. The study sheds light on the importance of examining parental socialization practices related to children’s emotional abilities from a culturally-informed perspective.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.






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