Date of Award

Spring 5-22-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

MA - Master of Arts


Expressive Therapies


Kelvin Ramirez, PhD., ATR-BC, LCAT


A literature review examining the difference in anger as a symptom of PTSD based on gender. The focus was on how gender roles and stereotypes impact women’s, as well as providers’, interpretation, expression, acknowledgement, and suppression of anger. By researching civilian survivors of non-combat trauma, the review examined PTSD and symptom discrepancies along a gender divide. Emphasis was placed on the creation of gender as a social construct. Significant nuance was discovered when defining anger, its means of expression, and measurement tools, particularly when interacting with gender. The history of art therapy as a treatment modality for PTSD and anger was also explored. Implications for art therapists and best practices when working with women with PTSD’s anger were discussed, suggesting considerations to reject gender stereotypes that hinder treatment.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License




The author owns the copyright to this work.