Date of Award

Spring 5-20-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

PHD - Doctor of Philosophy


Expressive Therapies

First Advisor

Michele Forinash, PhD

Second Advisor

Rakhshanda Saleem,PhD

Third Advisor

Natasha Webster,PhD


The problem under investigation is the lived experiences of marginalized entrepreneurs in Barbados. The group of entrepreneurs being explored have been marginalized culturally, institutionally, and resourcefully. The research questions were: How do marginalized entrepreneurs experience business-related encounters due to their identity? How does their identity and use of their “voice” in business situations, position them as businesspersons? Can photography illustrate how they see themselves as businesspersons? There were eight participants in the study, who ranged in age from 18 to 69 years. They were three females and five males who belonged to diverse marginalized identities such as a single mother, street vendors, a formerly incarcerated individual, and a visually impaired individual among others.

A phenomenological and Arts based research (ABR) methodology were combined. The ABR had two parts: (a) use of photo-narrative, (b) an artistic reflection on how the participants used their voice-in-business. The findings of the study showed that there were nine themes of relevance to the participants. The themes were personal attributes, business challenges, customer relations, COVID, the Barbados business environment, funding and money, training, assistance, and institutions.

The participants were highly driven and committed to the entrepreneurial path despite many setbacks. They relied on their inner strengths and self-beliefs to surmount challenges and looked to their family and friends to help find financial or business solutions. This research is useful in creating a perspective on the entrepreneurial journey for individuals who are marginalized.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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