Date of Award
PHD - Doctor of Philosophy
Shaun McNiff, PhD
Jane Ferris Richardson, PhD
Tomoyo Kawano, PhD
The art-based study, focused on painting with black ink on paper and video documentation, explores the relationship between artistic expression and contemplative breathing with a particular focus on tanden, a unique concept of such Asian cultures as Chinese, Korean and Japanese. There were three research questions: “How can tanden influence one’s physical movements in the art-making process?” and “Can contemplative breathing with a focus on tanden influence the quality of expression in one’s art-making? If so, what are the influences and implications for art therapy?”
The research suggested five bodily sensations common to all participants: inhaling and exhaling, relaxing, flow and rhythm, freedom and spontaneity, and centering. Those physical elements significantly impacted their artistic expressions, which conveyed three research outcomes as follows;
1. Different inhaling and exhaling sensations in the contemplative breathing with a focus on tanden facilitated attunement of mind and body.
2. The body movements became rhythmic, spontaneous, and bold in correspondence with contemplative breathing with a focus on tanden, and these qualities were shown in the paintings.
3. A focus on tanden supported centering action in the painting process together with corresponding expressions in the artistic composition.
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Number of Pages
Ito, Rumi, "Tanden Art-Making as Contemplative Practice" (2021). Expressive Therapies Dissertations. 111.
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